November 26, 2021, 11:34:34 PM

Author Topic: Origins of the AIDS pandemic  (Read 1405 times)

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

Offline ribbit

  • Hero Warrior
  • *****
  • Posts: 4294
  • T & T We Want A Goal !
    • View Profile
Origins of the AIDS pandemic
« on: October 01, 2008, 01:53:28 PM »
interesting what science find...

==


Study pushes back origin of AIDS pandemic


By Julie Steenhuysen

CHICAGO (Reuters) - The deadly AIDS virus first began spreading among humans at the turn of the 20th century in sub-Saharan Africa, just as modern cities were emerging in the region, U.S. researchers said Wednesday.

The finding pushes back the origin of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by several decades, they reported in the journal Nature.

Researchers think the growth of cities -- and high-risk behavior associated with urban life -- may have helped the virus to flourish. There is no cure for AIDS, which is most commonly transmitted through sexual contact.

Prior estimates put the origin of HIV at 1930. But Michael Worobey of the University of Arizona in Tucson now believes HIV began infecting humans between 1884 and 1924.

The research is based on 48-year-old gene fragments dug from a wax-embedded lymph node from a woman in Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of Congo, formerly Zaire.

The 1960 sample is the second-oldest genetic sequence of HIV-1 group M, the main strain of the virus responsible for the AIDS pandemic.

The oldest sequence came from a 1959 blood sample given by a man in Kinshasa, formerly known as Leopoldville.

"Once you have two you can line them up and compare them," Worobey said in a telephone interview.

"Once you do that, you see these two sequences are very different. That means the virus had already been there for a long time even by 1959 or 1960."

CALIBRATING THE CLOCK

Putting the two samples together with dozens of other previously known HIV-1 genetic sequences, the researchers constructed family trees for this strain of HIV.

"Those old sequences helped calibrate the molecular clock, which is essentially the rate at which mutations accumulate in HIV," Worobey said.

"Once you have that rate, you can work backward and make a guess of when the ancestor of the whole pandemic strain of the AIDS virus originated. It is that ancestor we are dating to 1908 plus or minus about 20 years."

Research from chimpanzee droppings suggests the virus first spread from chimps to humans in southeastern Cameroon. Worobey thinks the disease spread slowly among the local population until one of the infected people went to Kinshasa, where it had more opportunity to spread.

Worobey thinks by the 1960s, several thousand people may have been infected with HIV. By 1981, the rest of the world began to recognize the pandemic, which has now infected 33 million people and killed 25 million.

But Worobey sees some hope in the study.

"HIV is one of these pathogens that you could almost think of as living on the edge of extinction," he said.

If it had not been carried to a city, it may not have survived the jump to humans.

"It means there are things we could do to actually make it so that it doesn't have a chance of spreading," Worobey said.

Disease prevention is one of the most important issues in HIV, said Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, which help fund the research.

"For every one person that we put on therapy, two to three people in the developing world get newly infected," he said in a telephone interview. "The only way we are going to get our arms around this is through prevention."


(Editing by Maggie Fox and John O'Callaghan)




Offline just cool

  • Hero Warrior
  • *****
  • Posts: 8065
    • View Profile
Re: Origins of the AIDS pandemic
« Reply #1 on: October 03, 2008, 03:47:22 AM »
interesting what science find...

==


Study pushes back origin of AIDS pandemic


By Julie Steenhuysen

CHICAGO (Reuters) - The deadly AIDS virus first began spreading among humans at the turn of the 20th century in sub-Saharan Africa, just as modern cities were emerging in the region, U.S. researchers said Wednesday.

The finding pushes back the origin of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by several decades, they reported in the journal Nature.

Researchers think the growth of cities -- and high-risk behavior associated with urban life -- may have helped the virus to flourish. There is no cure for AIDS, which is most commonly transmitted through sexual contact.

Prior estimates put the origin of HIV at 1930. But Michael Worobey of the University of Arizona in Tucson now believes HIV began infecting humans between 1884 and 1924.

The research is based on 48-year-old gene fragments dug from a wax-embedded lymph node from a woman in Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of Congo, formerly Zaire.

The 1960 sample is the second-oldest genetic sequence of HIV-1 group M, the main strain of the virus responsible for the AIDS pandemic.

The oldest sequence came from a 1959 blood sample given by a man in Kinshasa, formerly known as Leopoldville.

"Once you have two you can line them up and compare them," Worobey said in a telephone interview.

"Once you do that, you see these two sequences are very different. That means the virus had already been there for a long time even by 1959 or 1960."

CALIBRATING THE CLOCK

Putting the two samples together with dozens of other previously known HIV-1 genetic sequences, the researchers constructed family trees for this strain of HIV.

"Those old sequences helped calibrate the molecular clock, which is essentially the rate at which mutations accumulate in HIV," Worobey said.

"Once you have that rate, you can work backward and make a guess of when the ancestor of the whole pandemic strain of the AIDS virus originated. It is that ancestor we are dating to 1908 plus or minus about 20 years."

Research from chimpanzee droppings suggests the virus first spread from chimps to humans in southeastern Cameroon. Worobey thinks the disease spread slowly among the local population until one of the infected people went to Kinshasa, where it had more opportunity to spread.

Worobey thinks by the 1960s, several thousand people may have been infected with HIV. By 1981, the rest of the world began to recognize the pandemic, which has now infected 33 million people and killed 25 million.

But Worobey sees some hope in the study.

"HIV is one of these pathogens that you could almost think of as living on the edge of extinction," he said.

If it had not been carried to a city, it may not have survived the jump to humans.

"It means there are things we could do to actually make it so that it doesn't have a chance of spreading," Worobey said.

Disease prevention is one of the most important issues in HIV, said Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, which help fund the research.

"For every one person that we put on therapy, two to three people in the developing world get newly infected," he said in a telephone interview. "The only way we are going to get our arms around this is through prevention."


(Editing by Maggie Fox and John O'Callaghan)




Big lie !!
The pen is mightier than the sword, Africa for Africans home and abroad.Trinidad is not my home just a pit stop, Africa is my destination,final destination the MOST HIGH.

Offline assrancid

  • Man who scratch ass should not bite fingernails.
  • Hero Warrior
  • *****
  • Posts: 684
  • Education should be the handmaid of citizenship.
    • View Profile
    • Stony Brook University
Re: Origins of the AIDS pandemic
« Reply #2 on: October 03, 2008, 06:36:11 AM »
Big Lie??? Can you provide evidence to refute the so-called big lie, or are you going to dazzle us with evidence ogf your BIG truth?

Frankly I am disappointed by your short answer, me want details mon ami.

Offline ribbit

  • Hero Warrior
  • *****
  • Posts: 4294
  • T & T We Want A Goal !
    • View Profile
Re: Origins of the AIDS pandemic
« Reply #3 on: October 07, 2008, 09:15:57 AM »
Big lie !!

is the same science that have all human species originating from africa. no surprise to me some of the deadliest diseases (another one, ebola) originate in africa.

Offline WestCoast

  • The obvious is that which is never seen until someone expresses it simply
  • Hero Warrior
  • *****
  • Posts: 16066
  • "Let We Do What We Normally Does" :)
    • View Profile
Re: Origins of the AIDS pandemic
« Reply #4 on: October 07, 2008, 10:11:42 AM »
Big lie !!

is the same science that have all human species originating from Africa. no surprise to me some of the deadliest diseases (another one, Ebola) originate in Africa.
So, Ribbit, could it be said then that any new disease that affect the "Human Race" will have a start there as the "Human Race" DNA is susceptible to such an eventuality.
« Last Edit: October 07, 2008, 10:15:51 AM by WestCoast »
Whatever you do, do it to the purpose; do it thoroughly, not superficially. Go to the bottom of things. Any thing half done, or half known, is in my mind, neither done nor known at all. Nay, worse, for it often misleads.
Lord Chesterfield
(1694 - 1773)

Offline Andre

  • Hero Warrior
  • *****
  • Posts: 5047
    • View Profile
Re: Origins of the AIDS pandemic
« Reply #5 on: October 07, 2008, 10:57:48 AM »
so all this mean somebody bugger a chimp?

Offline ribbit

  • Hero Warrior
  • *****
  • Posts: 4294
  • T & T We Want A Goal !
    • View Profile
Re: Origins of the AIDS pandemic
« Reply #6 on: October 08, 2008, 09:16:38 AM »
Big lie !!

is the same science that have all human species originating from Africa. no surprise to me some of the deadliest diseases (another one, Ebola) originate in Africa.
So, Ribbit, could it be said then that any new disease that affect the "Human Race" will have a start there as the "Human Race" DNA is susceptible to such an eventuality.

no idea about that. i read somewhere that the genetic diversity in africa across the human population is very high - so one might infer a disease that could survive in africa could survive in alot of places. but take sickle cell - that come from africa too. but it's a disease that doh affect the entire human race. maybe the next big pandemic will come from asia - like airborne bird flu? but it wouldn't surprise me if it originated in africa.

Offline Controversial

  • Hero Warrior
  • *****
  • Posts: 6765
    • View Profile
    • Gino McKoy
Re: Origins of the AIDS pandemic
« Reply #7 on: October 08, 2008, 09:35:48 AM »
genetically engineered diesease as prescribed by the nwo  ;) engineering started at the end of ww1 and completed at the end of ww2.

Offline WestCoast

  • The obvious is that which is never seen until someone expresses it simply
  • Hero Warrior
  • *****
  • Posts: 16066
  • "Let We Do What We Normally Does" :)
    • View Profile
Re: Origins of the AIDS pandemic
« Reply #8 on: October 08, 2008, 09:41:29 AM »
Big lie !!

is the same science that have all human species originating from Africa. no surprise to me some of the deadliest diseases (another one, Ebola) originate in Africa.
So, Ribbit, could it be said then that any new disease that affect the "Human Race" will have a start there as the "Human Race" DNA is susceptible to such an eventuality.

no idea about that. i read somewhere that the genetic diversity in africa across the human population is very high - so one might infer a disease that could survive in africa could survive in alot of places. but take sickle cell - that come from africa too. but it's a disease that doh affect the entire human race. maybe the next big pandemic will come from asia - like airborne bird flu? but it wouldn't surprise me if it originated in africa.

True True
so maybe it is determined by diet or confined to some who have come from a specific area?
It really is weird this thing called the "Human Body"
Whatever you do, do it to the purpose; do it thoroughly, not superficially. Go to the bottom of things. Any thing half done, or half known, is in my mind, neither done nor known at all. Nay, worse, for it often misleads.
Lord Chesterfield
(1694 - 1773)